Why RNA in situ hybridization (ISH)?
Most cancer types display a very high intra-tumoral and microenvironmental heterogeneity, as well as an elevated phenotypic diversity. The study of such complex systems directly correlates with the surge of “personalized medicine” and, more specifically, with the growing needs in biomarker discovery.
New transcriptomic profiling technologies, such as microarrays, Real-Time PCR (qPCR), or Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) start to reveal the intricacies of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) as well as microRNAs (miRNA), transcripts’ splice variants, and the existence of numerous clinically relevant RNA biomarkers. However, these methods destroy tissue in the process and deliver no spatial information essential to understand the tumor microenvironment. Hence, their results do not accurately reflect the great cell-to-cell variation of RNA expression.
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